Satellite cells are precursor cells for muscle cells (skeletal muscles) and high intensity training (such as weights) can boost satellite cell numbers and thus boost muscle cell numbers. Skeletal muscle is a form of striated muscle tissue, accounting for ∼40% of adult human body weight. Skeletal muscle is composed of multinucleated contractile muscle cells (also called myofibers). During development, myofibers are formed by fusion of mesoderm progenitors called myoblasts. In neonatal/juvenile stages, the number of myofibers remains constant, but each myofiber grows in size by fusion of satellite cells, a population of postnatal muscle stem cells.
Adult mammalian skeletal muscle is stable under normal conditions, with only sporadic fusion of satellite cells to compensate for muscle turnover caused by daily wear and tear. However, skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to regenerate after injury. Responding to injury, skeletal muscle undergoes a highly orchestrated degeneration and regenerative process that takes place at the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. This results in the reformation of innervated, vascularized contractile muscle apparatuses. This regeneration process greatly relies on the dynamic interplay between satellite cells and their environment (stem cell niche).1
Creatine Monohydrate and muscle growth
Studies have concluded that there is an increase in muscle following resistance exercise training with creatine monohydrate administration in older adults.2 We have also previously reported that older adults show a significant increase in total muscle creatine following four months of creatine monohydrate supplementation at 5g per day. An increase in satellite cell number occurs in older adults in response to resistance exercise training, and creatine monohydrate has been shown to enhance satellite cell activation during resistance exercise training in younger men.3 Together, the aforementioned data found that creatine monohydrate may enhance the resistance exercise induced activation of satellite cells and contribute to the increase in muscle mass seen a well-designed study.4 The increase in muscle mass was due to creatine monohydrate given that the potentiation of the muscle gains seen in the research were similar to those previously reported studies using creatine monohydrate as a muscle stimulating agent.
How Creatine works in the muscles
Creatine is a substance found in muscle that combines with phosphate to form creatine phosphate. Creatine phosphate reacts with adenosine di-phosphate to regenerate adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP – stored energy) in working muscle. Dietary supplementation of creatine may increase the total creatine and creatine phosphate content of the muscle. Researchers have found that muscle creatine phosphate levels drop significantly after the performance of a 300 meter run, which lasts 30 to 40 s suggesting that the lack of creatine phosphate may somehow limit performance during intense, short term exercise.5
Thus, buffering of ATP by phosphocreatine extends the duration of activity possible and increasing creatine enhances endurance.
Creatine monohydrate for brain power
Interestingly, creatine monohydrate doesn’t just boost your muscle power, it also boosts your brain power! Creatine supplementation is in widespread use to enhance sports-fitness performance, and has been trialled successfully in the treatment of neurological, neuromuscular and atherosclerotic disease.
Creatine plays a pivotal role in brain energy homeostasis, being a temporal and spatial buffer for cytosolic and mitochondrial pools of the cellular energy currency, adenosine triphosphate and its regulator, adenosine diphosphate. In one study, individuals were given oral creatine supplementation (5 g per day for six weeks) to see if creatine monohydrate would enhance intelligence test scores and working memory performance in 45 young adult, vegetarian subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Creatine supplementation had a significant positive effect on both working memory (backward digit span) and intelligence (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices), both tasks that require speed of processing. The findings underline a dynamic and significant role of brain energy capacity in influencing brain performance.
When and how to take creatine monohydrate?
From most of the studies reviewed, 5g per day seems like the optimal dose to take. It is best taken before your training session and again after the training session if it was a tough one. Taken 30min before a stressful exam or work situation will also help with your brain’s performance.
Why should I take the ATP Science Creatine monohydrate?
The process of Creapure® is patented in Europe EP 0754679, USA US 5719319 China CN 1140707, to guarantee to the lowest impurities possible. Impurities Creatinine, Dicyandiamide and Dihydrotriazine in CreaPure are lower than standard Creatine Monohydrate on the market.
Benefits of Creapure® include:
CreaPure is on the Cologne list (tested for banned substances)
No irradiated substances
Allergen, pesticide, heavy metal and microbial tested for compliance
Approved material manufacturer that will allow audits of their factory
HPLC verified guaranteeing fully efficacious material and no contaminants or adulteration
Physiol Rev. 2013 Jan; 93(1): 23–67. Satellite Cells and the Muscle Stem Cell Niche. Hang Yin, Feodor Price, and Michael A. Rudnickicorresponding author
Chrusch MJ, Chilibeck PD, Chad KE, Davison KS, Burke DG. Creatine supplementation combined with resistance training in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:2111–2117
Olsen S, Aagaard P, Kadi F, Tufekovic G, Verney J, et al. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training. J Physiol. 2006;573:525–534
Creatine monohydrate and conjugated linoleic acid improve strength and body composition following resistance exercise in older adults. Tarnopolsky M, Zimmer A, Paikin J, Safdar A, Aboud A, Pearce E, Roy B, Doherty T. PLoS One. 2007 Oct 3;2(10):e991.
Effects of oral creatine supplementation on performance and muscle metabolism during maximal exercise. 1995 Timothy Mark Ruden. Iowa State University
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease
ATP Science use 100% Creapure . The process of Creapure® is patented in Europe EP 0754679, USA US 5719319 China CN 1140707, to guarantee to the lowest impurities possible. Impurities Creatinine, Dicyandiamide and Dihydrotriazine in CreaPure are lower than standard Creatine Monohydrate on the market.
Australian Online Orders
ATP Science offers a flat rate standard shipping option to all Australian customers. We use Australia Post for all of our parcels shipped within Australia.
Australian Flat Rate Shipping (2-14 working days): $12.00
Free Standard Shipping on all orders over $150.00
ATP Science aims to get all orders dispatched within 1-2 business days of you placing your order. ATP Science do not ship orders on public holidays and/or weekends.
ATP Science does not take responsibility for any delays of your parcel/order from the moment it is handed to the courier driver.
United States of America Orders
ATP Science offers a flat rate standard shipping option, express shipping and free standard shipping on orders over $150.00 USD to all US customers. We use a 3rd party logistics company in the US to ship all of our orders so they will come from within the US. Shipping prices are below for the US:
Flat rate shipping (3-8 Working days): $9.95 USD
Express shipping (2-5 Working days): $14.95
Free Shipping on orders over $150.00 USD (3-8 Working days): FREE.
ATP Science aims to get all orders dispatched within 1-2 business days of you placing your order. ATP Science does not ship orders on public holidays and/or weekends.
ATP Science does not take responsibility for any delays of your parcel/order from the moment it is handed to the courier driver.
International Customers Please Read the Below (Especially UK customers)
Import taxes: You may have to pay import taxes and/or customs duties. You may also be required to pay a brokerage (handling) fee for the shipment. These charges are separate from your shipping charge and you will be billed directly for them via the shipping carrier. These shipping and tax rates vary from country to country and also depend upon the products being ordered. ATP Science has no control over these charges.
Declaration of Value and Product Description: International shipments are processed with a commercial invoice as required to ship internationally. Customs may make additional requests based on local laws and regulations. Due to the complexity of some requests, we cannot guarantee that the additional information requested will be provided. The requests may differ depending on the order value, regulations, and other unpredictable factors.
Your shipping address, phone number, and email address: Please make sure your shipping address, phone number, and email are full and complete. The phone number or email may be used by the shipping company to contact you in case they have problems delivering your order. ATP Science is not responsible if you incorrectly enter your address on your order and will not be responsible for your parcel if it is incorrectly delivered because of this.
Customs & Regulatory information: ATP Science will not be liable for packages refused or held by customs for delivery. ATP Science does not take responsibility for any extra charged to the customer by customs/duty/VAT.
Address or other customer error: If a package is returned to ATP Science due to an address error (or any other error) made by the customer, the customer will be responsible for any shipping fees incurred. A refund will be issued for merchandise only, minus a 10% restocking fee*, upon receipt of the returned package. This also applies to customer refusal of a package (in which the customer will have the cost of the return shipment taken from the total refund).
Violation of laws: If a package is returned to ATP Science due to a violation of a country's laws or import regulations, the customer will be responsible for any and all fees billed to ATP Science as a result. A refund will be issued for merchandise only, upon receipt of the returned package. If an order is seized and destroyed by customs due to regulatory issues, the customer will not receive credit for the merchandise or shipping cost.
Notes on returned packages: If an order is rejected by customs or unable to be delivered, and the cost to return the goods is greater than the value of the goods, ATP Science will instruct the carrier to abandon the package. The customer will not receive a refund for the merchandise or shipping cost. If an order is rejected by you unwilling to pay the duties or taxes ATP Science will only accept the rejected order if the value of the package is more than the cost of shipping to and back again and 10% restocking fee. If the cost to return the items exceed the cost of goods then ATP Science will instruct the agents to destroy the package and no refund will be available (and you may still be liable to pay your customs duties and taxes). If we do accept the return of the goods your refund will be the total of your order minus the cost to ship the goods back to us (which in some cases is quite a hefty fee).
We request that you contact your customs office and ask about import regulations and restrictions before placing your order. It is important for you to become familiar with Customs policies for your specific country before ordering.
Customs regulations differ by country and not knowing their regulations can result in your order incurring high import duties, the delivery being delayed or even returned. Please check with your Customs office to see if your country permits the shipment of the products you are planning to order from us and if any additional licenses or permits are needed.
Matt and Jeff discuss the how to use popular amino acids and what are the best forms to use and when to use them.
They also answer FAQs on gut health, thyroid issues (specifically the dreaded rT3) and a male with low test levels.
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In todays’ controversial episode Matt and Jeff talk about some cracker amino acids everyone should be taking to increase lean muscle mass and one amino acid that you’re probably taking and will want to get off immediately. This popular supplement will destroy your test levels, specifically your free test and ramp prolactin levels that may come with severe side effects.