POMEGRANATE SEED OIL – CLNA
• Modulates PPAR
• Enhances fatty acid oxidation
• Converts to CLA in the body
The pomegranate seed oil (PSO) presents a typical fatty acid profile which includes high percentages of the punicic acid (PA) – a conjugated isomer of a-linolenic acid. Recently, conjugated fatty acids have attracted significant attention due to reports of its health benefits in a variety of models of metabolic diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases.
A high content of phytosterols, tocopherols and a unique fatty acid composition, mainly consisting of punicic acid (55 %). Punicic acid, also known as trichosanic acid, is an omega-5 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and an isomer of conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLnA) with structural similarities to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and α-linolenic acid (LnA).
Pomegranate seed oil can increase carbohydrate oxidative capacity and it prevents diet-induced obesity and reduces insulin resistance. Pomegranate see oil (PSO) was also shown to exhibit in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which may be useful in the prevention and treatment of several inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis and coronary heart disease. Improves renal function and reduced protein and lipid damage in rats with nephrotoxicity.
Numerous studies have shown their beneficial effects in a variety of experimental models of metabolic and chronic inflammatory diseases CLnAs were found to reduce perirenal adipose tissue weight more potently than linoleic acid (LA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and α-linolenic acid (LnA).
Punicic acid (PA) modulates mucosal immune responses and improves gut inflammation through PPAR-γ and -δ-dependent mechanisms. Likewise, dietary PA was reported to lower fasting plasma glucose concentrations, improve the glucose-normalizing ability, suppress NF-Κb activation and TNF-α expression and up regulate PPAR α- and γ-responsive genes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.
Their results demonstrate that PA can bind and robustly activate PPAR-γ and increase PPAR-γ-responsive gene expression, which will result in improved diabetic and inflammatory status.
PA enhances fatty acid oxidation by upregulating CPT-1 the carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity-enzyme involved in fatty acid b-oxidation. Lowers triglyceride levels by enhancing lipolysis to liberate the fatty acid from the triglycerides and the up regulation of carnitine palmitase transferase delivery of fatty acids into mitochondria and subsequent fatty acid oxidation.
In general, in vivo studies have shown that CLnAs are efficiently absorbed in the organism and metabolized to CLAs. Approximately 10-15% of the CLnA converts directly to CLA and adds to the safflower CLA benefits as a slower release form of CLA to be created endogenously as the supplemented dose declines.
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