What does Brassica Oleracea (Broccoli Sprouts) do?
- Modifies Phase 1 CYP450 enzymes to increases the good 2α-hydroxyestrone production and reduces the bad 16α-hydroxyestrone.
- Increases phase 2 conjugation of estrogen through glucuronidation, glutathionation, methylation and sulfation.
- Quenches reactive quinones formed by the ugly 4α-hydroxyestrone pathway.
Broccoli sprouts contain a multitude of beneficial phytonutrients, activated vitamins and cofactors.
Glucoraphanin is a stable plant glucosinolate that is converted to the active isothiocyanate, sulforaphane by an enzyme known as myrosinase. Broccoli also contains glucobrassicin, the glucosinolate precursor of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and subsequently Diindolylmethane (DIM). These active ingredients are not stable and are best made fresh during the process of digestion as the myrosinase enzyme is released from its compartment in the cell wall and can breakdown the glucosinolates into actives. I3C is broken down straight away to form a variety of compounds including DIM.
DIM can be a useful supplement to reduce estrogen dominance. It is naturally sourced from broccoli sprouts and Alpha Venus can be used as a source of DIM. At low doses DIM can help to alter estrogen detoxification pathways to increase the production of the 2α-hydroxyestrone and block the production of the 4α-hydroxyestrone and 16α-hydroxyestrone to aid in the treatment of estrogen dominance. High doses of isolated pure DIM can saturate tissues and block androgen (testosterone) receptors and inhibit the protein synthesis induced by the anabolic effects of testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone.
Sulforaphane nitrile is produced from epithiospecifier proteins (ESP) in the sprouts and it does not possess the cancer-fighting properties that sulforaphane does. Eliminating the expression of ESP in broccoli sprout increases the fractional conversion of glucoraphanin to sulforaphane which is the most beneficial.
ATP Science has gone to great lengths to source and partner with a broccoli sprout powder grower to produce a powder that contains high levels of active ingredients with the essential catalyst myrosinase and very low, negligible levels of ESP to maximise sulforaphane yield once digested.
Sulforaphane Enhances Phase 2 Detox
Sulforaphane induces phase 2 proteins to conjugate estrogens, remove chemical carcinogens and quench reactive intermediates and reactive oxygen species. Nuclear factor E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a bZIP transcription factor, plays a central role in the regulation of phase 2 genes. Sulforaphane exerts its effect by strong induction of phase 2 enzymes via activation of Nrf2.
Nrf2 is a powerful protein that lies dormant within each cell of our body. Nrf2 remains latent and unable to move or operate until it is released by an Nrf2 activator. Once released it migrates into the cell nucleus and bonds to the DNA at the location of the Antioxidant Response Element (ARE) or also called hARE (Human Antioxidant Response Element) which is the master regulator of the total antioxidant system that is available in all human cells.
Nrf2 activating foods such as broccoli sprouts and rosemary can trigger the production of thousands of antioxidant molecules, providing far better protection against free radicals compared to standard antioxidant supplements.
Nrf2-regulated genes include: NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT),epoxide hydrolase, NADPH regenerating enzymes (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme), various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidants (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, ferritin, and haptaglobin), and biosynthetic enzymes of the glutathione and glucuronidation conjugation pathways.1011121314