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ADHD Overview

ADHD Overview – What do the Studies Say?

 

ADHD Overview

“Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been a diagnosis of some controversy over the last century in psychiatric and psychological circles. Over the past 30 years, however, a consensus has come about regarding both the existence and clarity of the symptoms that make up the ADHD phenomenon.”

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Warren Magnus; Steve S. Bhimji. StatPearls Last Update: June 24, 2017.

 

ADHD Overview

“ADHD is a developmental disorder of executive functioning that impairs the ability to focus, increases impulsivity, and increases motor activity.  The condition is usually diagnosed between the ages of 6 to 12, but symptoms can persist into adulthood.”

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Warren Magnus; Steve S. Bhimji. StatPearls Last Update: June 24, 2017.

 

ADHD Overview

“ADHD has developmental components of both genetic and environmental factors. No single cause has been identified. Recent studies suggest that ADHD is polygenic, and a variety of genes contribute to the development of the disorder.”

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Warren Magnus; Steve S. Bhimji. StatPearls Last Update: June 24, 2017.

 

ADHD Overview

“At the neurochemical level, both dopamine and norepinephrine are implicated with pharmaceutical intervention targeting these neurotransmitters.”

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Warren Magnus; Steve S. Bhimji. StatPearls Last Update: June 24, 2017.

 

ADHD Overview

“Current estimates put the incidence of ADHD at 11% of school-age children. The primary age of diagnosis is between 6 and 12.”

 

Visser SN, Danielson ML, Bitsko RH, Holbrook JR, Kogan MD, Ghandour RM et al. Trends in the parent-report of health care provider-diagnosed and medicated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: United States, 2003-2011. J Am Acad Child Adoles Psychiatry 2014; 53: 34–46.

 

ADHD Overview

“Executive function occurs in the prefrontal cortex. Dopamine plays an essential role in the cortex in maintaining executive functioning. Dopaminergic neurons participate in the in the regulation of systems expectation, memory, activity, attention, reward, emotional state, and motivation.”

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Warren Magnus; Steve S. Bhimji. StatPearls Last Update: June 24, 2017.

 

 

ADHD Overview

“Neuroimaging techniques such as PET and functional MRI have demonstrated the poor functioning of the frontal and frontocortical pathways. In ADHD the dysfunctions fall mainly into activity, memory, reward and motivational areas. These functional issues create the hallmarks of ADHD, hyperkinesis, and distractibility.”

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Warren Magnus; Steve S. Bhimji. StatPearls Last Update: June 24, 2017.

 

ADHD Overview

“Patients with ADHD demonstrate a high level of difficulties with time management and prioritization of tasks. They have difficulty initiating and completing tasks promptly. Often patients demonstrate difficulty changing tasks once a task set has begun.”

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Warren Magnus; Steve S. Bhimji. StatPearls Last Update: June 24, 2017.

 

ADHD Overview

“Additionally, symptoms of hyperkinesis and poor working memory are often present. Hyperkinetic behaviors, while most obvious in children, can be seen in adult patients often in more muted forms such as visible fidgeting on observation.”

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Warren Magnus; Steve S. Bhimji. StatPearls Last Update: June 24, 2017.

 

ADHD Overview

“Treatment of ADHD is historical and still relies heavily on stimulant medications as they act both on the dopaminergic and noradrenergic pathways. Mainstays of treatment remain methylphenidate (MPH) and dextroamphetamine (D-AMP).”

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Warren Magnus; Steve S. Bhimji. StatPearls Last Update: June 24, 2017.

 

ADHD Overview

“An exercise prescription for regular moderate to high-intensity cardiovascular exercise can positively impact cognition, confusion, and fatigue as well as improve self-motivation and short term memory. While transient, integrating exercise into the daily routine of an ADHD patient can significantly improve functioning for many patients.”

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Warren Magnus; Steve S. Bhimji. StatPearls Last Update: June 24, 2017.

 

ADHD Overview

“ADHD can be associated with a number of comorbidities including dyslexia, dyspraxia, Tourette Syndrome, major depression, oppositional defiant disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and anxiety disorders.”

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Warren Magnus; Steve S. Bhimji. StatPearls Last Update: June 24, 2017.

 

ADHD – Neurotransmitters

“Both norepinephrine and dopamine play a critical role in modulating attention in ADHD.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Neurotransmitters

“Norepinephrine may have more effect on executive functioning (deficits in executive functioning manifest as having difficulty solving problems, remembering tasks, and planning for a future task).”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Neurotransmitters

“Dopamine may be more important in maintaining attention.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Neurotransmitters

“Genomic studies have identified a variety of dopamine and serotonin receptors (i.e., dopamine 4 and 5, serotonin 1B) having significant association with ADHD.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Neurotransmitters

“Genomic studies have identified a variety of dopamine and serotonin receptors (i.e., dopamine 4 and 5, serotonin 1B) having significant association with ADHD.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Diagnosis

“There are 3 hallmark symptoms of ADHD: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Diagnosis

“Inattention presents as difficulty paying close attention to details in schoolwork or other activities, lack of attention to partners in verbal communication, and inability to follow through on tasks.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

ADHD – Diagnosis

“In contrast, impulsivity is seen as the inability to remain seated in situations where it would be expected (e.g., school, work), blurting out responses to questions, completing other people’s sentences, or acting without thinking through the consequences first.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Diagnosis

“Hyperactivity often presents as fidgeting when attempting to remain seated or excessive movement throughout the day. The presence of any of these symptoms in a patient justifies being evaluated for ADHD.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Diagnosis

“The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)10 is used to officially diagnose a patient with ADHD.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Diagnosis

“The DSM-5 separates the hallmark symptoms into 2 categories: inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Within each category there is a list of symptoms, and a pediatric patient (younger than 17 years) must have 6 or more of these symptoms.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Diagnosis

“Additionally, to be diagnosed, the patient must have expressed the symptoms of ADHD for a minimum of 6 months and have a history of developing several of the symptoms before the age of 12 years.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Diagnosis

“Symptoms also must be present in 2 or more settings, such as home and school, and there must be clear evidence that the symptoms interfere with functioning.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

Obesity and ADHD

“Studies in both clinical and epidemiological samples suggested that individuals with ADHD have higher than average BMI-SDS or a higher prevalence of obesity.”

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016

Samuele Cortese et al. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2017) 19: 4

 

Obesity and ADHD

“In our updated search focused on the last 4 years, we found 17 additional studies reporting rates of obesity/overweight in individuals with

ADHD.”

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016

Samuele Cortese et al. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2017) 19: 4

 

Obesity and ADHD

“Gender, study setting, study country, and study quality did not moderate the association between obesity and ADHD.”

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016

Samuele Cortese et al. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2017) 19: 4

 

Obesity and ADHD

“ADHD pharmacological treatment may exert a protective action on the risk of development of obesity.”

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016

Samuele Cortese et al. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2017) 19: 4

 

Obesity and ADHD

“Cortese and Vincenzi hypothesized three pathways: (1) obesity/overweigh or factors associated with obesity/overweight (such as sleep-disordered breathing) lead to ADHD symptoms.”

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016

Samuele Cortese et al. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2017) 19: 4

 

Obesity and ADHD

“(2) ADHD and obesity are underpinned common biological dysfunction, and (3) ADHD contributes to obesity.”

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016

Samuele Cortese et al. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2017) 19: 4

 

Obesity and ADHD

“They only found initial evidence from empirical

studies pointing to a role of abnormal eating patterns (including binge eating) mediating a link between ADHD and overweight, possibly supporting hypothesis no. 3 but not excluding hypothesis no. 1.”

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016

Samuele Cortese et al. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2017) 19: 4

 

 

Obesity and ADHD

“Abnormal eating patterns may contribute to the increased risk of obesity in individuals with ADHD.”

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016

Samuele Cortese et al. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2017) 19: 4

 

Obesity and ADHD

“…possible role of decreased physical activity (less involvement in sport activities) or increased hours/day spent watching TV, in individuals with ADHD compared to controls, as a possible mechanism favoring abnormal weight gain associated with ADHD.”

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016

Samuele Cortese et al. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2017) 19: 4

 

Obesity and ADHD

“Three studies retrieved in our search showed that ADHD chronologically precedes, and likely contributes to, weigh gain. However, another study has shown the reverse pattern. It is indeed possible that bidirectional pathways are involved.”

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016

Samuele Cortese et al. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2017) 19: 4

 

CBT and ADHD

“We reviewed around 16 studies in recent years on the effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapies in adults, the majority of which show a clear beneficial effect on ADHD symptoms in adults.”

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016

Samuele Cortese et al. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2017) 19: 4

 

CBT and ADHD

“Another study conducted in 2015 reported that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) resulted in a significant reduction of ADHD symptoms and the symptom improvement was

calculated both by investigators and by self-reported questionnaires.”

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016

Samuele Cortese et al. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2017) 19: 4

 

Does Bisphenol A cause ADHD?

“Bisphenol A (BPA) has long been used in the plastics industry to harden polycarbonates and epoxy resins. Chemically it resembles oestrogen, and because it is contained in the plastic used for baby bottles, for years there have been concerns about potential harms.”

 

Does Bisphenol A cause ADHD? Arch Dis Child 2017;0:1.

 

Does Bisphenol A cause ADHD?

“It has been known for a long time that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is more prevalent in children who were bottle-fed. There are obvious nutritional and psychosocial determinants at play here, but could a chemical substance such as BPA also be a culprit?”

 

Does Bisphenol A cause ADHD? Arch Dis Child 2017;0:1.

 

Does Bisphenol A cause ADHD?

“In animal experiments, it has been shown to interfere with dopamine synthesis in the forebrain.”

 

Does Bisphenol A cause ADHD? Arch Dis Child 2017;0:1.

 

Does Bisphenol A cause ADHD?

“For those born in 2007, before the ban, bottle-feeding conferred a hugely increased risk of ADHD compared with breast-feeding (adjusted OR 5.6; 95% CI 2.4 to 14.4).”

 

Does Bisphenol A cause ADHD? Arch Dis Child 2017;0:1.

 

Does Bisphenol A cause ADHD?

“In the 2011/12 cohort, the increased risk had reduced greatly, so as to become non-significant (aOR 1.05; 95% CI 0.4 to 2.6). Thus in this ‘natural experiment’, assuming that all the other factors that might differentiate breast and bottle feeders remained unchanged, BPA seems to have had a major effect.”

 

Does Bisphenol A cause ADHD? Arch Dis Child 2017;0:1.

 

Does Bisphenol A cause ADHD?

“The European Food Standards Agency states that ‘on the balance of evidence, at current levels of exposure there is no appreciable health risk’. The controversy will doubtless continue.”

 

Does Bisphenol A cause ADHD? Arch Dis Child 2017;0:1.

 

Do Phthalates cause ADHD?

“Phthalates are very common as they make plastic more flexible, thus they are found in children toys, medical devices as well as in cosmetics. In animal studies exposure to these chemicals has been found to induce hormonal disturbances and developmental symptoms of hyperactivity very similar to human ADHD.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Do Phthalates cause ADHD?

“Animal studies have found a direct correlation between prenatal exposure to industrial chemicals such as phthalates and the development of neurodevelopmental disorders as ADHD and autism.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

 

 

 

Do Phthalates cause ADHD?

“A Korean study looking at the amounts of phthalate metabolites in the urine of school aged children found a significant positive correlation between higher concentrations of these chemicals and ADHD symptoms.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Do Phthalates cause ADHD?

“Many indicators suggest that ADHD is not just solely a biological phenomenon, it is also linked in numerous ways to factors of social nature. Also, exposure to many noxious stimuli is mediated socially, by friends, the lifestyles of the closest family, in particular the mother, or by their absence, i.e., by social deprivation.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Do Phthalates cause ADHD?

“Multiple studies have linked prenatal lifestyles and addictions of pregnant mothers to the occurrence of ADHD in their children.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Lifestyles cause ADHD

“Early nicotine exposure was found to pose a higher risk for later ADHD than alcohol and caffeine during pregnancy.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Lifestyles cause ADHD

“alcohol exposure was a major risk factor for ADHD, but even more surprisingly, they found that exposure to junk food including high fat and sugary food also had negative effects on the fetus.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Lifestyles cause ADHD

“Ultimately, alcohol is transformed into sugar and therefore a diet which is high in refined sugar could also have a result similar to alcohol exposure.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Lifestyles cause ADHD

“higher rates of obesity in the mothers were directly associated with ADHD-I in their children.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Lifestyles cause ADHD

“obesity is one of the most common comorbidity of ADHD along with food addiction, with obesity starting in childhood and food addiction, respectively, at adolescence and early adulthood.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Lifestyles cause ADHD

“A direct correlation between acetaminophen taken by mothers during their pregnancy and higher rates of hyperkinetic disorders and ADHD in their children was found in a Danish study.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Lifestyles cause ADHD

“The researchers reviewed the records of as many as 64,322 children born between 1996 and 2002 and found consistent positive correlations with acetaminophen exposure and ADHD.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Lifestyles cause ADHD

“Acetaminophen was unsurprisingly also found to have endocrine disrupting properties. One of the most recent studies on the topic found that prenatal exposure to acetaminophen is associated with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and raised the risk of autism as well as ADHD.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Lifestyles cause ADHD

“Ineffective, inconsistent, and especially negligent parenting were found to exacerbate ADHD symptoms and be predictive of later disruptive behavior disorders such as Conduct Disorder.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Lifestyles cause ADHD

“Generally speaking, there are predictive and protective factors linking substance abuse and parenting. One of the most widely recommended parenting style with respect to ADHD is authoritative parenting.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Lifestyles cause ADHD

“This parenting style includes warmth, communication, and clear boundaries for the child.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Lifestyles cause ADHD

“A systematic review of parenting styles and drug abuse consistently found a clear correlation with authoritative parenting and lower rates of drug abuse and addiction.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Lifestyles cause ADHD

“children raised with an authoritative parenting style in the United States not only had lower drug and alcohol abuse incidences but were more competitive and successful in their academic careers.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

Lifestyles cause ADHD

“Hostility and parental conflicts were correlated with ADHD as well as single parent households.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

New Addictions – Electronic Media
Dependencies

“Similarly to drug addiction, currently we see more cases of compulsive internet use, social media addiction and video game addiction; we refer to these as the new addictions.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

New Addictions – Electronic Media
Dependencies

“Regardless of the nomenclature, the link with unhealthy technological habits in people with ADHD is prevalent.”

 

ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors Simon Weissenberger et al. Frontiers in Psychology April 2017 | Volume 8 | Article 454

 

ADHD

Nutrient treatment options

Can We Actually Help ADHD?

“Stimulant medications are typically the first line of treatment, as extensive research demonstrates their short-term effectiveness; however, their long-term effectiveness has recently been challenged.”

 

Clinically Significant Symptom Reduction in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Micronutrients: An Open-Label Reversal Design Study. Heather A Gordon et al. JOURNAL OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY Volume 25, Number 10, 2015

 

Can We Actually Help ADHD?

“In addition, concerns over adverse events such as weight loss and suicidal ideation and the possible long-term effects of medication on the developing brain as well as increasing the risk for rebound weight gain when stimulants are stopped, have led families and clinicians to seek alternatives.”

 

Clinically Significant Symptom Reduction in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Micronutrients: An Open-Label Reversal Design Study. Heather A Gordon et al. JOURNAL OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY Volume 25, Number 10, 2015

 

Allergies and ADHD

“The association between attention deficit hyper disorder (ADHD) and allergic diseases, whether rooted in comorbidity or causality, has been a source of public and clinical concern since the 1980s.”

 

Miyazaki et al. BMC Psychiatry (2017) 17:120 Allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

 

Allergies and ADHD

“Several studies have documented cases of allergic manifestations (e.g., atopic dermatitis or asthma) in response to stimulant and non-stimulant drug treatments for ADHD.”

 

Miyazaki et al. BMC Psychiatry (2017) 17:120 Allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

 

 

 

Allergies and ADHD

“In the aspect of the neurophysiological mechanism, some studies have suggested that the relationship between the immune response and the central nervous system (CNS) may predispose some children to autism, impulsive behavior or ADHD.”

Miyazaki et al. BMC Psychiatry (2017) 17:120 Allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

 

Allergies and ADHD

“Several epidemiological studies have reported that children with ADHD have a high risk of developing allergic diseases, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis.”

 

Miyazaki et al. BMC Psychiatry (2017) 17:120 Allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

 

Allergies and ADHD

“Our meta-analysis of the identified observational studies indicated that children with ADHD have an 80% increased odd of asthma compared with children without ADHD.”

 

Miyazaki et al. BMC Psychiatry (2017) 17:120 Allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

 

Allergies and ADHD

“The high asthma rate in children with ADHD could potentially be linked to the recent discovery of genetic association, in which several studies suggested that a gene polymorphism of dopamine receptor D5…”

 

Miyazaki et al. BMC Psychiatry (2017) 17:120 Allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

 

Allergies and ADHD

“…(DRD5), a form of the dopamine D1-like receptor, is associated with a ADHD behaviour subtype and that the expression of DRD5 is found in both the mammalian brain and peripheral blood leukocytes.”

 

Miyazaki et al. BMC Psychiatry (2017) 17:120 Allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

 

Allergies and ADHD

“According to these reports, DRD5 may also engage in some part of the immunological regulation process of T helper 17 cell (Th17) differentiation, which is extensively involved in asthma development.”

 

Miyazaki et al. BMC Psychiatry (2017) 17:120 Allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

 

ADHD

Elimination Diets

Elimination Diets and ADHD

“According to the ‘opioid excess theory’, digestion of gluten and casein produces peptides with an opioid activity that can enter the bloodstream when the gut permeability is high.”

 

Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Verena Ly et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Elimination Diets and ADHD

“Feingold, an American pediatrician and allergist, was the first who suggested that allergy to food additives, such as artificial flavors and colors, as well as naturally occurring salicylates could lead to ADHD symptoms.”

 

Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Verena Ly et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Elimination Diets and ADHD

“With regard to oligoantigenic diets, the effectiveness of the elimination phase has been demonstrated in several randomized clinical trials with patients with ADHD.”

 

Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Verena Ly et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Elimination Diets and ADHD

“…it was concluded that about one third of the children with ADHD show an excellent (>40% symptom reduction) response.”

 

Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Verena Ly et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Elimination Diets and ADHD

“In a previous study, a challenge test with allergenic foods has led to relapse of ADHD symptoms.”

 

Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Verena Ly et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“The effects of the microbiome on brain function, behaviour and diseases can be mediated through different pathways of the so-called microbiome–gut–brain axis, involving neural, as well as metabolic, immune and endocrine mechanisms.”

 

Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Verena Ly et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

 

 

 

The Gut and ADHD

“In brief, at least three pathways have been suggested to link the gut microbiome with brain function. First, the brain and the intestinal system are connected via the vagus nerve, a major nerve of the parasympathetic nervous system.”

 

Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Verena Ly et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“The vagus nerve seems to differentiate between non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria and mediate signals that can induce anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects depending on the nature of the stimulus.”

 

Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Verena Ly et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“For example, in a rodent study, it has been shown that ingestion of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduced stress-induced corticosterone and anxiety- and depression related behavior.”

 

Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Verena Ly et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“These effects were accompanied by alterations in central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor expression, which has often been associated with anxiety, depression, and bowel disorders.”

 

Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Verena Ly et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“Second, the microbiome could influence brain function via interactions with the immune system.”

 

Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Verena Ly et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“Alterations in regulation of neuroactive bacterial products or metabolites, can alter gene expression, influence the immune system, and interact with nerve cells by stimulating the sympathetic nervous system.”

 

Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Verena Ly et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

The Gut and ADHD

“Third, the composition of the microbiome might influence the levels of neurotransmitters and thereby processes in the brain. For instance, bacterial strains can influence the synthesis and thereby the release of serotonin.”

 

Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Verena Ly et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“Alterations in microbiome–gut–brain interaction can contribute to ADHD symptoms.”

 

Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Verena Ly et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“More specifically, increases in the genus Bifidobacterium in ADHD versus controls contributed to the increased metabolic function of cyclohexadienyl dehydratase, an enzyme that is involved in the synthesis of the essential amino acid and dopamine precursor, phenylalanine.”

 

Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Verena Ly et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“Furthermore, in the same study, we demonstrated that these metabolic changes were related to decreased ventral striatal signals to reward anticipation, a neural hallmark of ADHD.”

 

Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Verena Ly et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“Remarkably, most of the studies performed until now in order to decipher the etiology of ADHD have focused on the study of the influence of the human genome in the risk of developing ADHD and/or their phenotypes….”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“…overlooking the fact that our second genome, the genome of our microbiota, is also involved in brain development and function and may play a crucial role in neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“In recent years, emerging evidence has suggested a role of the gut microbiota in brain function and behavior and, in turn, intestinal dysbiosis has been linked to different behavioral features.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“It has also been established that behavioral traits can be transferred by fecal microbiota transplantation, suggesting that microbiota chances could be rather a cause than a consequence of behavioral alterations.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“Different bacterial strains have been shown to mediate behavioural effects via the vagus nerve as demonstrated by vagotomy in a number of preclinical studies.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“It has been determined that Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. can produce GABA.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

Escherichia spp., Bacillus spp. and Saccharomyces spp. can produce noradrenalin; Candida spp., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia spp. and Enterococcus spp. Produce serotonin; Bacillus spp. produce dopamine; and Lactobacillus spp. produce acetylcholine.”

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“In addition, plasma serotonin levels of conventional mice have been found to

be significantly higher than those in germ-free (GF) mice, which have no intestinal microbiota, demonstrating the capacity of the microbiota to influence this neurotransmitter.”

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“It has been suggested that secreted neurotransmitters from bacteria in the intestinal lumen may induce epithelial cells to release molecules such as hormones and cytokines that, in turn, have the ability to modulate neural signalling within the enteric nervous system and subsequently control brain function and behavior.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“This evidence suggests that the gut microbiota might be a therapeutic target for brain disorders mediated by deregulation in neurotransmitters such as ADHD.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“In addition, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate, acetate and propionate that are produced by microbial fermentation mainly from dietary fiber in the gut are known to have neuroactive properties.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“Butyrate, via an epigenetic mechanism related to its capacity to inhibit histone deacetylase, exerts beneficial behavioural effects.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“It has also been demonstrated that the intervention with a strain of Bifidobacterium longum normalizes the changes in behavior and BDNF mRNA induced by an intestinal parasite.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

The Gut and ADHD

“Recent studies have shown that plasma BDNF levels in ADHD patients differ from normal controls suggesting that BDNF may play a role in its pathogenesis.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“The risk of developing ADHD has been suggested to be associated with many perinatal risk factors, including delivery mode (vaginal delivery or cesarean section delivery), gestational age, type of feeding (breastfeeding and formula), maternal health and early life stressors among others.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“Many of those environmental factors associated with the risk of developing ADHD are also known to influence the early gut microbiota composition.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“Preterm neonates, who have been described to have a higher risk of developing ADHD and to have significantly more severe ADHD symptoms, seem to lack two of the main bacterial genera present in healthy term infants, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus.”

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“It is well established that antibiotics use, which is related to infection, promotes a less diverse microbiota and antibiotic intake and altered brain function are also associated.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“Maternal stress during pregnancy has also been demonstrated to have profound effects on offspring, being associated with an increased incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders including ADHD.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“Children with ADHD whose mothers were exposed to moderate and severe stress during pregnancy were reported to develop more severe symptoms than children with ADHD whose mothers were not exposed to prenatal stress.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“It is well known that chronic stress during pregnancy alters vaginal host immunity and resident microbiota composition.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“It has been hypothesized that non-genetic factors, such as early life experiences, may interact with genetic predisposition, leading to ADHD development.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

 

The Gut and ADHD

“A meta-analysis of case–control studies found significantly lower cortisol levels in children suffering from ADHD indicating a dysregulation of the HPA axis in the disorder.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

The Gut and ADHD

“It has been reported that the administration of specific strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species seems to be able to normalize corticosterone release as well as to ameliorate colonic dysfunction.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Gut and ADHD

“Diet is considered one of the most crucial factors impacting human gut microbiota composition and functionality.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Gut and ADHD

“Many studies have reported associations between diet and the risk of developing psychiatric disorders with gut microbiota dysbiosis considered one of the important players mediating this association.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Gut and ADHD

“Unhealthy maternal and early postnatal dietary patterns, independently of other potential confounding factors, elevate the risk of behavioural and emotional problems in the offspring.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Gut and ADHD

“An overall shift away from traditional lifestyles has been linked to changes in the microbiota composition as well as to the increased rates of depression and other mental health disorders including ADHD.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Gut and ADHD

“Diet has been proposed as one of the most important environmental factors that seem to influence the risk of developing ADHD in children and its prognosis or manifestations.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Gut and ADHD

“Gut microbiota composition also modulate oxidative stress which has also been reported to be significantly increased in ADHD patients.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Prenatal Obesity and ADHD

“It has been demonstrated that maternal obesity and metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diets have a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Prenatal Obesity and ADHD

“They found a significant association between pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity and a high ADHD symptom score in offspring while gestational weight gain was unrelated to ADHD.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Prenatal Obesity and ADHD

“There is evidence about the link between obesity and ADHD, and between obesity and alteration of the gut microbiota.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Prenatal Obesity and ADHD

“Obesity induces a low-grade inflammatory state which has been associated with behavioral and cognitive alterations, being gut microbiota most likely an important mediator between inflammation and altered behaviors.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Gene Polymorphisms

“Meta-analyses confirmed the association between ADHD and this gene, more specifically with the 148-bp allele, which is considered the “high-risk” allele.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Gene Polymorphisms

“DA D5 receptor gene belongs to the D1 class of DA receptors and, like the D4 receptor gene, is expressed in a brain area implicated in ADHD, the hippocampus.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Gene Polymorphisms

“Also related to the 5-HT system, the 5-HT1B receptor might be important in the ADHD pathology.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Gene Polymorphisms

“The DA receptor gene 3, dopamine beta hydroxylase, catechol-O-methyltransferase, α2A adrenergic receptors and brain derived neurotrophic factor have also been associated to ADHD.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Diets Improve ADHD

“Few years ago a study showed considerable improvement effects of a restricted elimination diet in a group of

children with ADHD.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Diets Improve ADHD

“Artificial food color exclusion, and to a lesser extent free fatty acid supplementation, significantly reduce symptom severity in ADHD.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Diets Improve ADHD

“Recently common food additives called emulsifiers have been found to promote colitis and metabolic syndrome in mice by altering gut microbiota.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Omega 3s Improve ADHD

“Omega-3 levels are reduced in children with ADHD and omega-3 dietary supplementation appears to provide modest although significant evidence of clinical efficacy for improving ADHD symptoms.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

 

 

Omega 3s Improve ADHD

“Omega-3 influences the levels of neurotrophins, molecules that increase neuronal growth and survival. Particularly, changes on the levels of BDNF have been reported to be associated with dietary omega-3 fatty acids intake.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Omega 3s Improve ADHD

“The proposed mechanisms by which omega-3 PUFAs may beneficially influence mental health are the regulation of BDNF and neurotransmitters levels as well as regulation of HPA axis activity.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Polyphenols Improve ADHD

“Diets rich in polyphenols have been suggested to help maintain normal brain function in both large-scale epidemiological studies.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Polyphenols Improve ADHD

“In the context of ADHD, a polyphenolic extract from pine bark has been shown to reduce hyperactivity in ADHD children together with a decrease in catecholamine excretion and oxidative stress.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Polyphenols Improve ADHD

“Approximately 90% of dietary polyphenols are accumulated in the large intestine where they are broken down into less complex metabolites by gut microbiota.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Polyphenols Improve ADHD

“Polyphenol metabolites modulate gut microbiota composition, favoring the growth of potentially beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp. and reducing that of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in both animal and human studies.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Bowel Habits and ADHD

“There is an increased prevalence of both constipation and fecal incontinence in children who suffer ADHD and this occurs independently of any pharmacotherapy.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Bowel Habits and ADHD

“Gut dysbiosis could be associated with the gastrointestinal dysfunctions observed in ADHD patients and could play a role in brain functioning and behavior in these cases.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Food Allerges and ADHD

“Increasing evidence also suggests that food allergies in children and adults are associated with behavioural problems and neuropsychiatric disorders, including ADHD, and dietary-based treatments in children with allergic disorders have shown to reduce ADHD-like behavior.”

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Food Allerges and ADHD

“The combination of the effects of host genetics and microbiome together with those of environmental factors could be indispensable for explaining ADHD development and its different manifestations.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Food Allergies and ADHD

“In a recent human study, the administration of a specific probiotic during the first 6 months of life seems to reduce the risk of ADHD development at 13 years of age.”

 

Gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new perspectives for a challenging condition María Carmen Cenit et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017

 

Can We Actually Help ADHD?

“In contrast, there is growing evidence that micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) given in larger combinations may be beneficial in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders, including autism, bipolar disorder, anxiety, and ADHD….”

 

Clinically Significant Symptom Reduction in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Micronutrients: An Open-Label Reversal Design Study. Heather A Gordon et al. JOURNAL OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY Volume 25, Number 10, 2015

 

Can We Actually Help ADHD?

“and nutrient supplementation is emerging as a potentially effective, low-risk, and minimally invasive treatment for children with ADHD.”

 

Clinically Significant Symptom Reduction in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Micronutrients: An Open-Label Reversal Design Study. Heather A Gordon et al. JOURNAL OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY Volume 25, Number 10, 2015

 

Vitamin D and ADHD?

“30 percent of ADHD children do not respond to the drug treatment. More effective treatment and strategies are needed to control the disease.”

 

Sharif MR, Madani M, Tabatabaei F, Tabatabaee Z. The Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Iran J Child Neurol. Autumn 2015;9(4): 48-53.

 

Vitamin D and ADHD?

“The role of micronutrients such as iron, zinc and omega three on the prevention and control of the symptoms have been extensively studied. However, the role of vitamin D has attracted less attention.”

 

Sharif MR, Madani M, Tabatabaei F, Tabatabaee Z. The Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Iran J Child Neurol. Autumn 2015;9(4): 48-53.

 

Vitamin D and ADHD?

“This condition exists despite the fact that vitamin D deficiency is associated with psychiatric diseases such as autism, schizophrenia, and depression.”

 

Sharif MR, Madani M, Tabatabaei F, Tabatabaee Z. The Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Iran J Child Neurol. Autumn 2015;9(4): 48-53.

 

Vitamin D and ADHD?

“Vitamin D deficiency during the fetal period is accounted for some psychological disorders after birth. In addition, it has been suggested that vitamin D insufficiency during the fetal and post-natal period has unfavorable effects on the development of the brain structure and functions.”

 

Sharif MR, Madani M, Tabatabaei F, Tabatabaee Z. The Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Iran J Child Neurol. Autumn 2015;9(4): 48-53.

 

Vitamin D and ADHD?

“The results of the present study indicated that the proportion of children with vitamin D deficiency in ADHD group was significantly larger than that of the normal children.”

 

Sharif MR, Madani M, Tabatabaei F, Tabatabaee Z. The Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Iran J Child Neurol. Autumn 2015;9(4): 48-53.

 

Vitamin D and ADHD?

“In addition, the mean value of serum vitamin D level in the cases group (19.11±10.10) was significantly lower than in the control (healthy) group (28.67±13.76).”

 

Sharif MR, Madani M, Tabatabaei F, Tabatabaee Z. The Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Iran J Child Neurol. Autumn 2015;9(4): 48-53.

 

Vitamin D and ADHD?

“In addition, 8.15% of the ADHDs had normal vitamin levels in their serum.”

 

Sharif MR, Madani M, Tabatabaei F, Tabatabaee Z. The Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Iran J Child Neurol. Autumn 2015;9(4): 48-53.

 

Vitamin D and ADHD?

“In an interventional study on 80 patients with ADHD above the age of 16 in New Zealand, reported 27% prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency. Using vitamin D supplement for eight weeks was found to be effective in alleviating the signs of the disease.”

 

Sharif MR, Madani M, Tabatabaei F, Tabatabaee Z. The Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Iran J Child Neurol. Autumn 2015;9(4): 48-53.

 

Vitamin D and ADHD?

“Since vitamin D is a neurosteroid, lack of this vitamin results in many psychological disorders. In addition, vitamin D plays a protective role in brain health, that is, it increases the expression of transpeptidase-glutamyl (GGT).”

 

Sharif MR, Madani M, Tabatabaei F, Tabatabaee Z. The Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Iran J Child Neurol. Autumn 2015;9(4): 48-53.

 

What is GGT?

GGT plays a key role in the gamma-glutamyl cycle, a pathway for the synthesis and degradation of glutathione and drug and xenobiotic detoxification. This enzyme enhances the formation of glutathione, which is the most important brain antioxidant factor. Lack of this vitamin during the fetal life and childhood, in the very early days of life affect the nerve differentiation, axon synapses, brain structure, and function.

 

Vitamin D and ADHD?

In conclusion, the low levels of serum vitamin D among the ADHD children suggest the need for regularly

monitoring of serum vitamin D levels and treatment of patients with vitamin D deficiencies.”

 

Sharif MR, Madani M, Tabatabaei F, Tabatabaee Z. The Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Iran J Child Neurol. Autumn 2015;9(4): 48-53.

Exercise and ADHD

 

Exercise Benefits ADHD

“A growing research literature suggests that physical activity and exercise can play an important role in managing the symptoms of ADHD.”

 

Memarmoghaddam M et al. Effects of a selected exercise programon executive function of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Journal of Medicine and Life Vol. 9, Issue 4, October-December 2016, pp.373-379

 

Exercise Benefits ADHD

“Studies report that physical activity and exercise can result in beneficial changes in EF by stimulating the neurobiological processes.”

 

Memarmoghaddam M et al. Effects of a selected exercise programon executive function of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Journal of Medicine and Life Vol. 9, Issue 4, October-December 2016, pp.373-379

 

Exercise Benefits ADHD

“Five minutes jumping on a trampoline (using a Go-No-Go test) has a positive effect on the inhibition in children with ADHD.”

 

Memarmoghaddam M et al. Effects of a selected exercise program on executive function of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Journal of Medicine and Life Vol. 9, Issue 4, October-December 2016, pp.373-379

 

Exercise Benefits ADHD

“Although, the mechanism between exercise and inhibition and ADHD are still not completely understood, the beneficial effects of the exercise on inhibition may be due to the electrical settings of an individual’s nerves.”

 

Memarmoghaddam M et al. Effects of a selected exercise programon executive function of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Journal of Medicine and Life Vol. 9, Issue 4, October-December 2016, pp.373-379

 

Exercise Benefits ADHD

“Exercise positively changes the plasticity of the brain (through neurogenesis, neuroadaptation and neuroprotective processes), increases cerebral blood flow and releases catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine) that all play an essential role in the ADHD disorder.”

 

Memarmoghaddam M et al. Effects of a selected exercise programon executive function of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Journal of Medicine and Life Vol. 9, Issue 4, October-December 2016, pp.373-379

 

Exercise Benefits ADHD

“Moreover, exercise increases the level of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which may subsequently facilitate the progression of attention, inhibition, learning and emotions.”

 

Memarmoghaddam M et al. Effects of a selected exercise programon executive function of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Journal of Medicine and Life Vol. 9, Issue 4, October-December 2016, pp.373-379

 

Exercise Benefits ADHD

“Also BDNF helps in the release of dopamine, which is often used in the treatment of the ADHD disorder.”

 

Memarmoghaddam M et al. Effects of a selected exercise programon executive function of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Journal of Medicine and Life Vol. 9, Issue 4, October-December 2016, pp.373-379

 

Exercise Benefits ADHD

“Therefore, exercise and physical activity can both directly and indirectly influence the catecholamines system, which is thought to have an important role in the ADHD disorder.”

 

Memarmoghaddam M et al. Effects of a selected exercise programon executive function of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Journal of Medicine and Life Vol. 9, Issue 4, October-December 2016, pp.373-379

Exercise Benefits ADHD

“This study showed that the selected exercise program with a controlled duration, frequency, and severity could improve the cognitive function such as cognitive and behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD.”

 

Memarmoghaddam M et al. Effects of a selected exercise programon executive function of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Journal of Medicine and Life Vol. 9, Issue 4, October-December 2016, pp.373-379

 

Parental Influences on ADHD

“Studies involving families of children with ADHD have demonstrated a lesser degree of parental warmth and a higher degree of parental depression, anxiety, stress, as well as inconsistent and hostile parenting when compared to controls.”

 

Association Between Parenting Styles and Symptoms of Attention

Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Esra ÇÖP1 Turkish Journal of Psychiatry 2017

 

Parental Influences on ADHD

“These families were reported to have weak problem solving abilities and difficulties with role distribution.”

 

Association Between Parenting Styles and Symptoms of Attention

Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Esra ÇÖP1 Turkish Journal of Psychiatry 2017

 

Ritalin

ADHD – Drug Treatments

“Psychostimulants have been the medications of choice for treating ADHD for more than 60 years. About 75% to 80% of children with ADHD will benefit from the use of psychostimulants.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Drug Treatments

“Methylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, lisdexamfetamine, and the

mixed amphetamine salts (dextro- and levoamphetamine) constitute the psychostimulants currently on the market.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Drug Treatments

“In general, the psychostimulants have similar common adverse reactions including decreased appetite, stomach pain, sleep disturbances, and headaches.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Drug Treatments

“Less common adverse reactions include labile mood and growth suppression.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Drug Treatments

“New warnings of sudden cardiac death are described within the psychostimulants’ product information.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Drug Treatments

“The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association state that an electrocardiogram can be considered in children with risk factors, such as a family history of heart disease or an individual history of chest pain or dizziness.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Drug Treatments

“Methylphenidate is the medication most widely used as first line treatment for ADHD. Methylphenidate exerts its action on both dopamine and norepinephrine transporters, thus it is believed to increase dopamine and norepinephrine in the prefrontal cortex.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Drug Treatments

“Dexmethylphenidate is the isomeric form of methylphenidate and is available as an immediate-release Focalin (Novartis), and long-acting Focalin XR formulation.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Drug Treatments

“Even though the mechanism of action is believed to be similar for methylphenidate and amphetamine products, the amphetamine products also increase dopamine release.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

 

ADHD – Drug Treatments

“Atomoxetine is an alternative agent for these patients. Atomoxetine is theorized to be a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.29 As a result of the inhibition, concentrations of norepinephrine and dopamine are increased in the prefrontal cortex of the brain, which is believed to control behaviors.”

 

A Review of Pharmacological Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Leslie Briars et al. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2016;21(3):192–206

Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: Friend or foe?

“Differences in brain structure in children with ADHD versus children without ADHD were detected by neuroimaging techniques, like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: Friend or foe?

“Some of the abnormalities observed through imaging were a reduced global brain volume, most prominent in the splenium of the corpus callosum, in the right caudate, and in the total and right cerebral volume.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: Friend or foe?

“The ADHD group had a significantly smaller cortical thickness, especially in the medial and superior prefrontal and precentral regions.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: Friend or foe?

“A significant delayed cortical maturation in the middle prefrontal cortex (PFC).”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: Friend or foe?

“Similarly, by measuring the activity of neural regions along the time through task-related studies, fMRI has shown hypoactivation (i.e. reduced blood flow) in the frontoparietal and ventral attentional

networks.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: Friend or foe?

“Regarding neurotransmitter alterations, deficits in dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) were observed by positron emission tomography (PET) studies, and these monoamines seem involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Long-term adverse effects of MPH

“A lack of information on the long-term effects of MPH existed and that further research would be important on its neurological and cardiovascular effects.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Long-term adverse effects of MPH – Animal Studies

“In fact, several authors evaluated neurophysiological changes after MPH chronic exposure to rats and reported declines in brain DAT density.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Long-term adverse effects of MPH – Animal Studies

“Striatal DAT density declined by 25% 6 days after the discontinuation (PND 45) and about 50% 31 days post-treatment (PND 70) in the very young group of rats (MPH administrated at PND 25).”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Long-term adverse effects of MPH – Animal Studies

“MPH (5mg/kg, HCl salt) was orally administrated once daily for 21 days to male Wistar rats with PND 25 or PND 65 ± 4 days and the brains were evaluated 1 week post-administrations.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Long-term adverse effects of MPH – Animal Studies

“The results revealed a reduction of 1.6% in striatal volume, a decrease of 9.7% in myelin content in PND 25 animals, a 2.8% increase of striatal volume, and a 3.1% increase of myelin content in adult animals when compared to the respective controls.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Long-term adverse effects of MPH – Animal Studies

“MPH also affects the structure and function of the brain, especially in the hippocampus, which is involved in learning and memory processes.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Long-term adverse effects of MPH – Animal Studies

“In adult male rats treated with MPH (3 or 10 mg/kg, orally), once daily, for 6 days, hippocampal necrosis was detected after the higher dose.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

 

 

Long-term adverse effects of MPH – Animal Studies

“Regarding adolescent rats, a significant loss of neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampus was reported.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Long-term adverse effects of MPH – Animal Studies

“Results showed that juvenile exposure to MPH had persistent effects on the expression of BDNF, since MPH-exposed animals showed a significant increase in total BDNF mRNA.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

MPH Increases Free Radials in the Brain

“a dose-dependent increase on lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation in the cerebellum, PFC, hippocampus, and striatum of young rats.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

MPH Increases Free Radials in the Brain

“Oxidative stress in the hippocampus

after chronic treatment with high doses of MPH was reported by Motaghinejad and

coworkers.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

MPH In Kids Brains

“Although neurotoxicity studies conducted in laboratory animals are important, studies in humans, especially in adults after chronic exposure to MPH during early-age may give critical data.”

 

Loureiro-Vieira S Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017 Aug;60:34-47. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

 

Stimulants (Ritalin) Decrease the Symptoms of ADHD

Stimulants decrease fidgeting and finger tapping and increase on-task behavior in the classroom. At home, stimulants improve interactions, on-task behaviors, and compliance.

 

Richters J, Arnold L, Abikoff H, et al. The National Institute of Mental Health Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA), I: background and rationale. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1995;34:987-1000.

 

Can We Actually Help ADHD?

“This study is the first double-blind RCT to investigate the efficacy and safety of a broad-based vitamin/mineral formula in the treatment of ADHD in adults. We demonstrated that micronutrient treatment induced statistically robust improvements in several indices, from ADHD symptoms to global assessment of functioning, compared with placebo.”

 

Vitamin-mineral treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. Julia J. Rucklidge, Chris M. Frampton, Brigette Gorman, Anna Boggis The British Journal of Psychiatry Apr 2014, 204 (4) 306-315

 

Nutrient Levels

“Blood nutrient levels of vitamins D, B12 and folic acid increased more in the micronutrient group but only B12 levels rose beyond reference levels, and no adverse effects are associated with high B12 intake.”

 

Vitamin-mineral treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. Julia J. Rucklidge, Chris M. Frampton, Brigette Gorman, Anna Boggis The British Journal of Psychiatry Apr 2014, 204 (4) 306-315

 

Nutrient Levels

“Increased levels of these and other key vitamins might contribute to the positive effects seen with micronutrient administration, given their role in the regulation of homocysteine metabolism, mood and neurotransmitter synthesis. These levels also provide further evidence of good adherence in the active group.”

 

Vitamin-mineral treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. Julia J. Rucklidge, Chris M. Frampton, Brigette Gorman, Anna Boggis The British Journal of Psychiatry Apr 2014, 204 (4) 306-315

 

Nutrient Levels

“Increased levels of these and other key vitamins might contribute to the positive effects seen with micronutrient administration, given their role in the regulation of homocysteine metabolism, mood and neurotransmitter synthesis. These levels also provide further evidence of good adherence in the active group.”

 

Vitamin-mineral treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. Julia J. Rucklidge, Chris M. Frampton, Brigette Gorman, Anna Boggis The British Journal of Psychiatry Apr 2014, 204 (4) 306-315

 

ADHD is More Common in Boys

The male to female ratio ranges from 4:1 for the predominantly hyperactive impulsive type to 2:1 for the predominantly inattentive type.

 

Weiss G, Hechtman L, Milroy T, et al. Psychiatric status of hyperactives as adults: a controlled prospective 15-year follow-up of 63 hyperactive children. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 1985;24:211-220.

 

Sleep Disturbances Plague ADHD

“ADHD children could present sleep problems such as agitated sleep, sleep-onset difficulties, low arousal threshold during the night.”

 

Lecendreux M, Konofal E. Sleep and vigilance in hyperactive children. Rev Prat. 2002 Nov 15;52(18):2002-4.

ADHD Subjects Have Reduced  REM

ADHD subjects have decreased rapid eye movement (REM) activity.

 

Greenhill L, Puig-Antich J, Goetz R, Hanlon C, Davies M. Sleep architecture and REM sleep measures in prepubertal children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity.
Sleep. 1983;6(2):91-101.
Sleep Disturbances Plague ADHD

“RESULTS: Medicated and non-medicated ADHD subjects were reported to have more sleep disturbances compared with controls.”

 

O’Brien LM, Ivanenko A, Crabtree VM, Holbrook CR, Bruner JL, Klaus CJ, Gozal D. The effect of stimulants on sleep characteristics in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Sleep Med. 2003 Jul;4(4):309-16.
Ritalin is Ineffective at Promoting Sleep for ADHD

“Stimulant medication appears to have minimal effects on subjective and objective sleep characteristics in children with reported ADHD.”

 

O’Brien LM, Ivanenko A, Crabtree VM, Holbrook CR, Bruner JL, Klaus CJ, Gozal D. The effect of stimulants on sleep characteristics in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Sleep Med. 2003 Jul;4(4):309-16.
Corpus Callosum Size is Testosterone Dependent

“Testosterone may play a significant role in the development of the corpus callosum.”

 

Moffat SD, Hampson E, Wickett JC, Vernon PA, Lee DH.
Testosterone is correlated with regional morphology of the human corpus callosum.
Brain Res. 1997 Sep 5;767(2):297-304.

 

 

Corpus Callosum (CC) Size is Prenatally Testosterone Dependent

“These results show that hormonal organization of the CC in the male is the result of the independent action of prenatal testicular androgens.”

 

Mack CM, McGivern RF, Hyde LA, Denenberg VH. Absence of postnatal testosterone fails to demasculinize the male rat’s corpus callosum. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1996 Sep 2;95(2):252-5.

 

 

 

 

Hormones and ADHD

Testosterone Contributes to ADHD

“Early androgen treatment may support the neurobiology of animals with genetic predisposition to hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention in a manner consistent with the enhanced expression of ADHD-like behaviors.”

 

King JA, Barkley RA, Delville Y, Ferris CF. Early androgen treatment decreases cognitive function and catecholamine innervation in an animal model of ADHD. Behav Brain Res. 2000 Jan;107(1-2):35-43.

 

ADHD is Associated with Increased Testosterone

“These results support the hypothesis that early androgen treatment may support the neurobiology of animals with genetic predisposition to hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention in a manner consistent with the enhanced expression of ADHD-like behaviors.”

 

King JA, Barkley RA, Delville Y, Ferris CF. Early androgen treatment decreases cognitive function and catecholamine innervation in an animal model of ADHD.

 

Testosterone Alters Neurochemistry in ADHD

 

ADHD is Associated with Altered Sex Hormone Levels

“Results indicated significant inverse correlations between clinical symptomatology and levels of DHEA and pregnenolone in the total group.”

 

Strous RD, Spivak B, Yoran-Hegesh R, Maayan R, Averbuch E, Kotler M, Mester R, Weizman A. Analysis of neurosteroid levels in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001 Sep;4(3):259-64.

 

ADHD is Associated with Altered Sex Hormone Levels

Oestrogen Increases Dopamine Concentrations

Oestrogen:

  • acts as an antioxidant
  • reduces monoamine oxidase
  • Improves dopamine receptors/ release
  • improves membrane morphology/ fluidity,

 

Dluzen DE. Neuroprotective effects of estrogen upon the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. J Neurocytol. 2000 May-Jun;29(5-6):387-99.

 

ADHD is Associated with Altered Dopamine and Noradrenaline

Dopanergic activity is lowered in ADHD sufferers, where as noradrenergic activity is raised.

 

Russell VA. Hypodopaminergic and hypernoradrenergic activity in prefontal cortex slices of an animal model for ADHD – the spontaniously hypertensive rat. Behav Brain Res. 2002 Mar. 10;130(1-2):191-6

 

ADHD is Associated with Increased MAO A Activity

“Monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) is located on the X chromosome and metabolizes biogenic amines including dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. All three complementary approaches employed (family-based, case-control and quantitative trait design) suggest a role for the MAO A promoter-region polymorphism in conferring risk for ADHD in our patient population.”

 

Manor I, Tyano S, Mel E, Eisenberg J, Bachner-Melman R, Kotler M, Ebstein RP. Family-based and association studies of monoamine oxidase A and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): preferential transmission of the long promoter-region repeat and its association with impaired performance on a continuous performance test (TOVA). Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(6):626-32.

 

Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency May Contribute to ADHD

The levels of docasahexaenoic, dihomogammalinolenic, and arachidonic acids are significantly lower in hyperactive children than controls.

 

Mitchell, E. A., et al.  Clinical characteristics and serum essential fatty acid levels in hyperactive children.  Clin Pediatr.  26(8):406-411, 1987.

 

ADHD is Associated with Altered Serotonin Function

“These data indicate an association between parent aggressive behavior and lower 5-HT function in aggressive boys with ADHD.”

 

Halperin JM, Newcorn JH, Kopstein I, McKay KE, Schwartz ST, Siever LJ, Sharma V. Serotonin, aggression, and parental psychopathology in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997 Oct;36(10):1391-8.

 

ADHD Have a Blunted HPA Axis

“Subjects who show decreased salivary cortisol levels after stress make more commission errors in attention tests. This suggests that the blunted HPA axis response to stress is related to the impulsivity in patients with ADHD.”
Hong HJ, Shin DW, Lee EH, Oh YH, Noh KS. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Yonsei Med J. 2003 Aug 30;44(4):608-14.

 

 

ADHD Have Lowered Cortisol Levels

“Salivary cortisol was significantly lower in the ADHD group than in the controls. Further analysis revealed that this reduction was restricted to the subgroup of patients not prescribed stimulant medication.”
Kariyawasam SH, Zaw F, Handley SL. Reduced salivary cortisol in children with comorbid Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 2002 Feb;23(1):45-8.

 

Antihistamines Improve ADHD

“Histamine H3 receptor antagonists such as GT2016 and FUB181 may provide clinical candidates for the treatment of dementia, attention deficit hyperactive disorder and epilepsy.”
Onodera K, Miyazaki S. The roles of histamine H3 receptors in the behavioral disorders and neuropsychopharmacological aspects of its ligands in the brain. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1999 Aug;114(2):89-106.

 

 

 

 

 

Heavy Metals and ADHD

Mercury Increases Glutamate Release

“These observations are fully consistent with MeHg-induced dysregulation of excitatory amino acid homeostasis, and indicate that a glutamate-mediated excitotoxic mechanism is involved. This manuscript details the role of astrocytes in mediating MeHg-induced excitotoxicity.”
Aschner M, Yao CP, Allen JW, Tan KH. Methylmercury alters glutamate transport in astrocytes. Neurochem Int. 2000 Aug-Sep;37(2-3):199-206.

 

ADHD is Associated With Hair Lead Levels

This epidemiological study found that children afflicted with ADD have high hair lead levels.

 

Tuthill, R. W.  Hair lead levels related to children’s classroom attention-deficit behavior.  Archives of Environmental Health.  51(3):214-220, 1996.

 

Aluminium Toxicity May Cause ADHD

“The adverse effects of aluminium that have been reported in recent years include Alzheimer’s disease, dementia and hyperactivity and learning disorders in children.”

 

Cooke K, Gould MH. The health effects of aluminium–a review. J R Soc Health. 1991 Oct;111(5):163-8.
Aluminium Reduces Neurotransmitters

“In the aluminium exposed group: the AChE activity was significantly decreased in the hippocampus, septum, striatum and brainstem; serotonin levels were reduced by 20% in the cortex, hippocampus, septum and striatum; in brain stem, the serotonin level was decreased by 40%.”

 

Ravi SM, Prabhu BM, Raju TR, Bindu PN.
Long-term effects of postnatal aluminium exposure on acetylcholinesterase activity and biogenic amine neurotransmitters in rat brain.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2000 Oct;44(4):473-8.

 

Aluminium Reduces Neurotransmitters

“Though dopamine levels were not altered in the cortex, septum and brainstem, they were reduced by 40% in the striatum.”

 

Ravi SM, Prabhu BM, Raju TR, Bindu PN.
Long-term effects of postnatal aluminium exposure on acetylcholinesterase activity and biogenic amine neurotransmitters in rat brain.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2000 Oct;44(4):473-8.

 

Thyroid Dysfunction and ADHD

“We conclude that the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities is higher in children with ADHD than in the normal population.”
Weiss RE, Stein MA, Trommer B, Refetoff  S. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and thyroid function.
J Pediatr. 1993 Oct;123(4):539-45.  
Other Causes of ADHD

“Other potential etiologic factors for ADHD include low birth weight, birth trauma, traumatic brain injury, fetal alcohol syndrome, heavy metal poisoning, deficiencies of minerals and vitamins, food allergies, and prenatal nicotine exposure.”

 

Arnold LE. Treatment alternatives for ADHD. Program and abstracts of NIH Consensus Development Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD; September 17-19, 1998; Los Angeles, California.

Comparison Between Chronic Inflammation’s Effects and ADHD

 

Natural Treatments for ADHD

Diet Improves ADHD

“Food additives, sugar, and aspartame are considered negative factors in the development of ADHD, and thus, dietary intervention studies with special diets, including additive-free and sugar elimination diets, have been conducted. A meta-analysis has reported that artificial food coloring is associated with childhood hyperactivity.”
Nutrients. 2014 Apr; 6(4): 1539–1553.

Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Hae Dong Woo et al.

 

Iron May Improve ADHD

“Iron deficiency may be associated with ADHD because iron stores in the brain can influence dopamine-dependent functions.”
Nutrients. 2014 Apr; 6(4): 1539–1553.

Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Hae Dong Woo et al.

Nutrition Improves ADHD as Effectively as Ritalin

 

“These findings support the effectiveness of food supplement treatment in improving attention and self-control in children with ADHD and suggest food supplement treatment of ADHD may be of equal efficacy to Ritalin treatment.”
Harding KL, Judah RD, Gant C. Outcome-based comparison of Ritalin versus food-supplement treated children with AD/HD. Altern Med Rev. 2003 Aug;8(3):319-30.

 

Nutrition Improves ADHD as Effectively as Ritalin

Supplementation with lipids rich in PUFA’s, B complex vitamins, magnesium, copper, manganese calcium, passion flower, valerian, lemon balm, liquorice or fennel may be useful in ADHD.

 

Berdonces. JL. Attention deficit and infantile hyperactivity Rev Enferm. 2001 Jan;24(1):11-4.

 

DHA Improves Kids Brains

“As main conclusions, it can be mentioned that high DHA intake may prevent autism disorder.”

 

Carlos Cardoso , Cláudia Afonso & Narcisa M. Bandarra (2017): Dietary DHA, Bioaccessibility, and Neurobehavioural Development in Children, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

 

 

DHA Improves Kids Brains

“In particular, DHA, one of the most important marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), may have a strong influence on brain health.”

 

Carlos Cardoso , Cláudia Afonso & Narcisa M. Bandarra (2017): Dietary DHA, Bioaccessibility, and Neurobehavioural Development in Children, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

 

DHA Improves Kids Brains

“Consumption of larger amounts of n-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, appears to reduce the risk of depression, including postpartum depression, bipolar disorder (manic depression), schizophrenia, and mood and behaviour disorders.”

 

Carlos Cardoso , Cláudia Afonso & Narcisa M. Bandarra (2017): Dietary DHA, Bioaccessibility, and Neurobehavioural Development in Children, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

 

DHA Improves Kids Brains

“It has also been hypothesized a connection between DHA in the diet and in the nerve cell membrane.”

Carlos Cardoso , Cláudia Afonso & Narcisa M. Bandarra (2017): Dietary DHA, Bioaccessibility, and Neurobehavioural Development in Children, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

 

DHA Improves Kids Brains

“DHA is rapidly incorporated in the nervous tissue of retina and brain during the brain’s growth spurt, which occurs from the last three months of pregnancy up to two years of age.”

 

Carlos Cardoso , Cláudia Afonso & Narcisa M. Bandarra (2017): Dietary DHA, Bioaccessibility, and Neurobehavioural Development in Children, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

 

DHA Improves Kids Brains

“Positive findings on a beneficial effect of DHA supplementation or fish intake during pregnancy and/or lactation on developmental outcomes of the offspring have been reported from both observational studies and randomized controlled trials.”

 

Carlos Cardoso , Cláudia Afonso & Narcisa M. Bandarra (2017): Dietary DHA, Bioaccessibility, and Neurobehavioural Development in Children, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

 

DHA Improves Kids Brains

“many studies have outlined the dimensionality of autism concerning its co-morbidity with other neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia.”

 

Carlos Cardoso , Cláudia Afonso & Narcisa M. Bandarra (2017): Dietary DHA, Bioaccessibility, and Neurobehavioural Development in Children, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

 

DHA Improves Kids Brains

“In this context, it was reported that 53 children with ADHD had

significantly lower plasma levels of n-3 PUFA than did the control group of 43 children.”

 

Carlos Cardoso , Cláudia Afonso & Narcisa M. Bandarra (2017): Dietary DHA, Bioaccessibility, and Neurobehavioural Development in Children, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

DHA Improves Kids Brains

“In this context, it was reported that 53 children with ADHD had

significantly lower plasma levels of n-3 PUFA than did the control group of 43 children.”

 

Carlos Cardoso , Cláudia Afonso & Narcisa M. Bandarra (2017): Dietary DHA, Bioaccessibility, and Neurobehavioural Development in Children, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

DHA Improves Kids Brains

 

“An important mechanism relating DHA to ADHD may be dependent on neurotransmitter physiology, namely dopamine transmission.”

 

Carlos Cardoso , Cláudia Afonso & Narcisa M. Bandarra (2017): Dietary DHA, Bioaccessibility, and Neurobehavioural Development in Children, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

 

DHA Improves Kids Brains

“Chronic n-3 PUFA deficiencies can reduce dopamine and its binding to D2 receptors both in frontal cortex and other brain regions, and are related to attentional and behavioural dysfunctions similar to those observed in ADHD.”

Carlos Cardoso , Cláudia Afonso & Narcisa M. Bandarra (2017): Dietary DHA, Bioaccessibility, and Neurobehavioural Development in Children, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

 

DHA Improves Kids Brains

“Increasing erythrocyte DHA and EPA contents via dietary supplementation may improve behavior, attention, and literacy in children with ADHD, with particular importance to a supplement very rich in DHA.”

 

Carlos Cardoso , Cláudia Afonso & Narcisa M. Bandarra (2017): Dietary DHA, Bioaccessibility, and Neurobehavioural Development in Children, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

 

DHA Improves Kids Brains

“increased erythrocyte EPA + DHA (from 4.09 ± 0.85 to 8.78 ± 1.36% of total FAs) was associated with improved spelling, attention, and reduced oppositional behavior, hyperactivity, and cognitive problems.”

 

Carlos Cardoso , Cláudia Afonso & Narcisa M. Bandarra (2017): Dietary DHA, Bioaccessibility, and Neurobehavioural Development in Children, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

 

DHA Improves ADHD

DHA supplementation appears to reduce ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties.

 

Richardson, A. J., et al.  A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of supplementation with highly unsaturated fatty acids on ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties.  Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry.  26(2):233-239, 2002.

 

DHA Deficiency Mimics ADHD

“Several previous studies indicated that some physical symptoms reported in ADHD are similar to symptoms observed in essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency in animals and humans deprived of EFAs.”

 

Burgess JR, Stevens L, Zhang W, Peck L. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):327S-30S.
DHA Improves ADHD

In another study using contrast analysis of the plasma polar lipid data, subjects with lower compositions of total n-3 fatty acids had significantly more behavioral problems, temper tantrums, and learning, health, and sleep problems than did those with high proportions of n-3 fatty acids.

 

Burgess JR, Stevens L, Zhang W, Peck L. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):327S-30S.

DHA Improves Dopamine and Serotonin Levels

“Recent studies have provided evidence that plasma DHA is available to developing brain and that DHA is involved in dopamine and serotonin metabolism.”

 

Innis SM. The role of dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in the developing brain. Dev Neurosci. 2000 Sep-Dec;22(5-6):474-80.

 

Folic Acid Problems

“In ‘‘Voluntary fortification of breakfast cereals with folic acid: contribution to dietary intake in Australia,’’

(Japar et al. 2016) the authors call for exploration of the potential detrimental effects of voluntary folic acid fortification of food in light of the large doses young children (ages 2–3) are receiving in breakfast cereal.”

 

Catherine E. Taylor & Kathleen Bush (2016): Unintended consequences of inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase through folic acid supplementation: inattentive-type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and ASD connections, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition,

 

Folic Acid Problems

“Folic acid – a substance that hardly existed in human bodies or diets before the mid-twentieth century – and increased prevalence of inattentive-type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.”

 

Catherine E. Taylor & Kathleen Bush (2016): Unintended consequences of inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase through folic acid supplementation: inattentive-type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and ASD connections, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition,

 

Folic Acid Problems

“These possible links stem from folic acid’s inhibition of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR).”

 

Catherine E. Taylor & Kathleen Bush (2016): Unintended consequences of inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase through folic acid supplementation: inattentive-type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and ASD connections, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition,

 

Folic Acid Problems

“The inhibition of DHFR causes both (1) a decrease in BH4, which is an essential element of the biosynthesis of dopamine and other important neurotransmitters.”

 

Catherine E. Taylor & Kathleen Bush (2016): Unintended consequences of inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase through folic acid supplementation: inattentive-type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and ASD connections, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition,

 

Folic Acid Problems

“(2) a decrease in the BH4:BH2 ratio,

which increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling and reduces the production of nitric oxide (NO).”

 

Catherine E. Taylor & Kathleen Bush (2016): Unintended consequences of inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase through folic acid supplementation: inattentive-type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and ASD connections, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition,

 

Folic Acid Problems

“Dopamine and NO play critical roles in learning and executive functions that are impaired in individuals with ADHD-I.”

 

Catherine E. Taylor & Kathleen Bush (2016): Unintended consequences of inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase through folic acid supplementation: inattentive-type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and ASD connections, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition,

 

Folic Acid Problems

“United States has coincidentally experienced dramatic increases in its ADHD burden during the past 18 years since it mandated folic acid fortification of enriched grain products.”

 

Catherine E. Taylor & Kathleen Bush (2016): Unintended consequences of inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase through folic acid supplementation: inattentive-type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and ASD connections, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition

 

Folic Acid Problems

“it seems prudent to consider the use of levomefolic acid or folinic acid – forms of folate that do not inhibit DHFR activity – in place of folic acid.”

 

Catherine E. Taylor & Kathleen Bush (2016): Unintended consequences of inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase through folic acid supplementation: inattentive-type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and ASD connections, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition

 

Folic Acid Problems

“Folic acid appears to have the recently-uncovered effect of inducing pseudo-MTHFR deficiencies when given in high doses to mice.”

 

Catherine E. Taylor & Kathleen Bush (2016): Unintended consequences of inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase through folic acid supplementation: inattentive-type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and ASD connections, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition

 

 

 

Folic Acid Problems

“MTHFR gene polymorphisms are associated with increased ASD risk.”

 

Catherine E. Taylor & Kathleen Bush (2016): Unintended consequences of inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase through folic acid supplementation: inattentive-type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and ASD connections, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition

 

B6 and ADHD

“In 70s Coleman with coauthors had published a few articles on the effect of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6) in patients with ADHD.”

 

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a pyridoxine-dependent condition: Urinary diagnostic biomarkers. S. Dolina et al. / Medical Hypotheses 82 (2014) 111–116

 

B6 and ADHD

“Authors have shown that vitamin B6 (30 mg/kg daily) increases the level of blood plasma serotonin, which is inherently low in ADHD patients, and its clinical effect is higher than that of earlier promoted Ritalin.”

 

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a pyridoxine-dependent condition: Urinary diagnostic biomarkers. S. Dolina et al. / Medical Hypotheses 82 (2014) 111–116

 

B6 and ADHD

“Serotonin hypofunction and disorders of serotonin regulation over dopamine system in the prefrontal cortex were accepted as conditions leading to impulsive behavior and aggressive reactions.”

 

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a pyridoxine-dependent condition: Urinary diagnostic biomarkers. S. Dolina et al. / Medical Hypotheses 82 (2014) 111–116

 

B6 and ADHD

 

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a pyridoxine-dependent condition: Urinary diagnostic biomarkers. S. Dolina et al. / Medical Hypotheses 82 (2014) 111–116

 

B6 and ADHD

“The data obtained have shown that PLP-dependent TRP degradation by Kynurenine pathway is completely disordered in untreated ADHD patients and to some extent corrected in patients treated with Ritalin.”

 

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a pyridoxine-dependent condition: Urinary diagnostic biomarkers. S. Dolina et al. / Medical Hypotheses 82 (2014) 111–116

 

B6 and ADHD

“The doses of pyridoxine hydrochloride we use are at least three times less than those proposed by Coleman: 8–10 mg/kg daily (up to 100 mg /day in children of 4–8 years; 200 mg/day in adolescents).”

 

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a pyridoxine-dependent condition: Urinary diagnostic biomarkers. S. Dolina et al. / Medical Hypotheses 82 (2014) 111–116

B6 Stimulates Neurotransmitter Production

“Vitamin B6 plays a key role in the synthesis of several neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid.”

 

Miodownik C, Lerner V, Cohen H, Kotler M. Serum vitamin B6 in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients with and without tardive dyskinesia. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2000 Jul-Aug;23(4):212-5.

 

SAM Improves ADHD

“Preliminary data from the open trial reveal that 75 percent (6 out of 8 male) patients improve on it. The 2 who did not improve had not improved on methylphenidate trial.”

 

Shekim WO, Antun F, Hanna GL, McCracken JT, Hess EB. S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) in adults with ADHD, RS: preliminary results from an open trial. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1990;26(2):249-53.
SAM Improves Dopamine Levels

“S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), the active form of methionine, acts as a methyl donor and is involved in many metabolic pathways. It has beta adrenergic and DA receptor agonist activity.”

 

Shekim WO, Antun F, Hanna GL, McCracken JT, Hess EB. S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) in adults with ADHD, RS: preliminary results from an open trial. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1990;26(2):249-53.
Theanine Improves Dopamine Levels

“Theanine administration caused significant increases in serotonin and/or DA concentrations in the brain, especially in striatum, hypothalamus and hippocampus.”

 

Yokogoshi H, Kobayashi M, Mochizuki M, Terashima T. Effect of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on brain monoamines and striatal dopamine release in conscious rats.
Neurochem Res. 1998 May;23(5):667-73.
Theanine is Found in Green Tea

“Theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major components of amino acids in Japanese green tea.”

 

Yokogoshi H, Kobayashi M, Mochizuki M, Terashima T. Effect of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on brain monoamines and striatal dopamine release in conscious rats.
Neurochem Res. 1998 May;23(5):667-73.
Tyrosine Increases Dopamine

“These data constitute the first in vivo evidence that administration of tyrosine can selectively potentiate the clozapine-evoked increase in mesocortical extracellular DA concentrations.”

 

Jaskiw, G. E., et al.  Tyrosine augments acute clozapine- but not haloperidol-induced dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex of the ra: an in vivo microdialysis study.  Neuropsychopharmacology.  25(1):149-156, 2001.

 

Tyrosine and Phenylalanine are Low in ADHD

“Plasma levels of Phe and Tyr were also decreased in the ADHD subjects compared with the normal controls.”

 

Baker GB, Bornstein RA, Rouget AC, Ashton SE, van Muyden JC, Coutts RT. Phenylethylaminergic mechanisms in attention-deficit disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1991 Jan 1;29(1):15-22.

 

Zinc Deficiency May Cause ADHD

“These findings indicate that zinc deficiency may play a role in aetiopathogenesis of ADHD.”

 

Bekaroglu M, Aslan Y, Gedik Y, Deger O, Mocan H, Erduran E, Karahan C. Relationships between serum free fatty acids and zinc, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a research note.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1996 Feb;37(2):225-7.
Zinc Improves ADHD

“Zinc nutrition may be important for treatment of ADHD.”

 

Arnold LE, Pinkham SM, Votolato N. Does zinc moderate essential fatty acid and amphetamine treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2000 Summer;10(2):111-7.

 

Magnesium Deficiency is Common in ADHD

“The conclusion from the investigations is that magnesium deficiency in children with ADHD occurs more frequently than in healthy children.”

 

Kozielec T, Starobrat-Hermelin B.
Assessment of magnesium levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Magnes Res. 1997 Jun;10(2):143-8.

 

Carnitine Improves ADHD

“Treatment with carnitine significantly decreased the attention problems and aggressive behavior in boys with ADHD.”

 

Van Oudheusden LJ, Scholte HR. Efficacy of carnitine in the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002 Jul;67(1):33-8.
Carnitine Improves ADHD

“A 7-day administration of acetyl-l-carnitine in rats increased dopamine and serotonin output.”

 

Tolu P, Masi F, Leggio B, Scheggi S, Tagliamonte A, De Montis MG, Gambarana C. Effects of long-term acetyl-L-carnitine administration in rats: I. increased dopamine output in mesocorticolimbic areas and protection toward acute stress exposure. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002 Sep;27(3):410-20.
CoQ10 May Improve ADHD

“Researchers reported that coenzyme Q10 protects against the depletion of dopamine in the brain.”

 

Beal, F. M.  Neuroprotective effects of CoQ10.  9th International Symposium on Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q10.  Ancona, Italy, 1996.

 

 

 

NADH MAY Improve ADHD

“Because NADH increases cellular production of ATP and facilitates dopamine synthesis, it may counteract the effects of jet lag on cognitive functioning and sleepiness.”

 

Birkmayer GD, Kay GG, Vurre E. Stabilized NADH (ENADA) improves jet lag-induced cognitive performance deficit. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2002;152(17-18):450-4.

 

NADH MAY Improve ADHD

“Rat studies have shown that dopamine synthesis in the brain increases by more than 40% after two weeks of intraperitoneal injections with NADH.”

 

Glasnapp, A., et al.  Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) in Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.  International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding.  4(4):276-279, 2000.

 

Herbal Medicine and ADHD

“Katz et al. reported significant improvement of TOVA-score forthe CHP-group (Melissa o. herbal) between baseline and post intervention measure-ment. These changes were observed in all subtests of the TOVA andtheir aggregation.”

 

Herbal medicines in children with attention deficit hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD): A systematic review. Dennis Anheyera et al Complementary Therapies in Medicine 30 (2017) 14–23

 

Valerian and ADHD

“The study compared two groups of which one received a mother tincture of Valeriana officinalis while the other group was given a homeopathic potency of this tincture. A placebo tincture served ascontrol condition.”

 

Herbal medicines in children with attention deficit hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD): A systematic review. Dennis Anheyera et al Complementary Therapies in Medicine 30 (2017) 14–23

 

Valerian and ADHD

“Outcomes: The PSQ showed a significant improvement for both treatmentgroups compared to placebo in nearly all subscales (except psy-chosomatic problems and conduct problems).”

 

Herbal medicines in children with attention deficit hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD): A systematic review. Dennis Anheyera et al Complementary Therapies in Medicine 30 (2017) 14–23

Ginkgo and ADHD

“Shakibaei et al. showed significant improvements in inattention rated by parents and teachers if the children were treated with Ginkgo biloba in addition to methylphenidate compared to placebo.”

 

Herbal medicines in children with attention deficit hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD): A systematic review. Dennis Anheyera et al Complementary Therapies in Medicine 30 (2017) 14–23

Pycnogenol® and ADHD

“Another study included tested the effects of a French maritimepine bark extract (Pycnogenol®) compared to a placebo.”

 

Herbal medicines in children with attention deficit hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD): A systematic review. Dennis Anheyera et al Complementary Therapies in Medicine 30 (2017) 14–23

Pycnogenol® and ADHD

“Trebatická et al. reported significant improvements in inat-tention and hyperactivity when assessed by teachers.”

 

Herbal medicines in children with attention deficit hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD): A systematic review. Dennis Anheyera et al Complementary Therapies in Medicine 30 (2017) 14–23

Ginkgo and Panax Benefit  ADHD

A combination herbal product containing American ginseng extract, Panax quinquefolium, (200 mg) and Ginkgo biloba extract (50 mg) was tested for its ability to improve the symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

 

Lyon MR, Cline JC, Totosy de Zepetnek J, Shan JJ, Pang P, Benishin C.
Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolium and Ginkgo biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study.
J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2001 May;26(3):221-8.

 

Ginkgo and Panax Benefit  ADHD

After 4 weeks of treatment, the proportion of subjects exhibiting improvement ranged from 44% for the social problems attribute to 74% for the Conners’ ADHD index and the DSM-IV hyperactive-impulsive attribute.

 

Lyon MR, Cline JC, Totosy de Zepetnek J, Shan JJ, Pang P, Benishin C.
Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolium and Ginkgo biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study.
J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2001 May;26(3):221-8.

 

Ginkgo is an MAO Inhibitor

This data indicates that the MAO-inhibiting activity of Ginkgo biloba extract is primarily due to the presence of kaempferol. Ginkgo biloba extract has properties indicative of potential neuroprotective ability.
Sloley BD, Urichuk LJ, Morley P, Durkin J, Shan JJ, Pang PK, Coutts RT.
Identification of kaempferol as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and potential Neuroprotectant in extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2000 Apr;52(4):451-9.

 

Ginkgo Increases Dopamine

“The decrease in synaptosomal uptake was prevented, in a concentration-dependent manner, by the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761.”
Ramassamy C, Naudin B, Christen Y, Clostre F, Costentin J.
Prevention by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) and trolox C of the decrease in synaptosomal dopamine or serotonin uptake following incubation.
Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Dec 15;44(12):2395-401.

 

 

 

Panax Increases Dopamine and Serotonin

“As to brain monoamine-related substances, the metabolism of DA and NE in the cerebral cortex and of 5-HT in the corpus striatum and cerebellum in the (Ginseng) -group were facilitated.”
Itoh T, Zang YF, Murai S, Saito H. Effects of Panax ginseng root on the vertical and horizontal motor activities and on brain monoamine-related substances in mice. Planta Med. 1989 Oct;55(5):429-33.

 

Panax is Dopanergic

“The results also suggest that GTS may act on presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors or receptor-operated Na+ channels in dopaminergic nerve terminals.”
Shim I, Javaid JI, Kim SE. Effect of ginseng total saponin on extracellular dopamine release elicited by local infusion of nicotine into the striatum of freely moving rats.
Planta Med. 2000 Dec;66(8):705-8.

 

Panax Exhibits MAO Inhibition

“Ginseng also attenuated pentylenetetrazole-induced decrease in rat brain MAO activity, confirming its anxiolytic activity since this has been proposed to be an endogenous marker for anxiety.”
Bhattacharya SK, Mitra SK. Anxiolytic activity of Panax ginseng roots: an experimental study. J Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Aug;34(1):87-92.

The Biochemical Effects of Hypericum

“In vivo St John’s Wort extract leads to a down-regulation of beta-adrenergic receptors and an up regulation of serotonin 5-HT(2) receptors in the rat frontal cortex.”
Butterweck V. Mechanism of action of St John’s wort in depression : what is known? CNS Drugs. 2003;17(8):539-62.
Licorice Inhibits 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase thus Increasing Cortisol

Foods and ADHD

 

Food Linked to ADHD

“Nutritional factors such as food additives, refined sugars, food sensitivities/allergies, and fatty acid deficiencies have all been linked to ADHD.”

 

Schnoll R, Burshteyn D, Cea-Aravena J. Nutrition in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a neglected but important aspect.
Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2003 Mar;28(1):63-75.

 

Food Linked to ADHD

“There is increasing evidence that many children with behavioral problems are sensitive to one or more food components that can negatively impact their behavior.”

 

Schnoll R, Burshteyn D, Cea-Aravena J. Nutrition in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a neglected but important aspect.
Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2003 Mar;28(1):63-75.

 

Food Linked to ADHD

“In general, diet modification plays a major role in the management of ADHD and should be considered as part of the treatment protocol.”

 

Schnoll R, Burshteyn D, Cea-Aravena J. Nutrition in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a neglected but important aspect.
Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2003 Mar;28(1):63-75.

 

Elimination Diets Improve ADHD

“40 children, 36 boys and 4 girls, aged 3-7 (average 4.8 years), who met the DSM-IV-criteria for ADHD, followed their usual diet for two weeks and thereafter for two weeks an elimination diet, based on the few foods diet (rice, turkey, pear and lettuce).”

 

Pelsser LM, Buitelaar JK. Favourable effect of a standard elimination diet on the behavior of young children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a pilot study. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2002 Dec 28;146(52):2543-7.

 

Elimination Diets Improve ADHD

“In young children with ADHD an elimination diet can lead to a statistically significant decrease in symptoms.”

 

Pelsser LM, Buitelaar JK. Favourable effect of a standard elimination diet on the behavior of young children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a pilot study. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2002 Dec 28;146(52):2543-7.

 

Diets For ADHD

  • Hypoallergenic (no wheat, milk/casein etc.)
  • Low gycaemic load
  • Adequate fats and proteins
  • Blood type friendly
  • Limit/exclude ‘synthetics’

Bottom line:

  • Eat what the body is designed to eat

Breakfast For ADHD

  • Smoothie with black berries, LSA, coconut milk and flavoured (N.I.) whey/soy/rice/pea protein with added lecithin
  • Eggs, with onion, capsicum etc.

 

 

Lunch For ADHD

  • Salads or fruit with tinned tuna/salmon and cheese (if dairy is OK)
  • Cold cuts (roast chicken, turkey etc.) with low GI fruits with suitable nuts if old enough
  • Rice crackers with nut spread, salads, cold cuts or flavored tuna

 

Dinner For ADHD

  • Vegies (limit potatoes), include pumpkins, greens etc. with meat/fish/chicken/tofu?
  • Fish (salmon) and vegetables
  • Stir fries
  • Rice with vegies and meat cooked Asian style